Subject: Re: special variables From: Erik Naggum <firstname.lastname@example.org> Date: 09 Sep 2002 02:59:28 +0000 Newsgroups: comp.lang.lisp Message-ID: <email@example.com> * Johan Ur Riise | Certainly I would stand no chance at all with the documentation only. I think you need to examine the reasons for this. I read it to mean that you have not achieved predictability for what you read in the documentation, which is a sign that there is some underlying issue or concept that is still very unclear to you. It is also very hard to help you with something you struggle with at too high a level, which is the impression I got from reading your list of experiments, as well. Perhaps it may be helpful to understand lexical vs special bindings by examining the situation before, during, and after each form of binding. First, let us take a lexical binding of the variable `foo´. Suppose first that `foo´ is not bound. The lexical binding introduces a new variable to the scope of the binding, which is not accessible by any means outside that scope, even if you have the name. Because a lexical bindings is unique, a lexical binding may survive its scope by returning a closure from the scope. A lexical binding is therefore an object. This will become important soon. Now, suppose instead that `foo´ was already bound when we entered this scope where a new variable with an existing name is introduced. The name refers to the lexically enclosing scope, and there is no way to refer to any other scope. One may therefore argue that the binding from the outer scope is shadowed, but it would be equally valid to argue that the object that is the binding has been pushed on a stack when entering the scope and gets popped off that stack when exiting the scope, making the name refer to the same binding it did before the intervening scope. However, since lexical bindings are inaccessible from without, these binding objects may be compile-time constructs unless they are closed over by a closure that is passed to other functions or returned from its scope. Typically, lexical bindings are held in registers and are shuttled back and forth between memory at will, using a stack or a predetermined slot in the stack frame and their nature as objects is only seen when understanding the true nature of closures. An explanation of their implementation is outside the scope of this discussion, however. Let us now examine the special binding of the variable `foo´. What makes a special binding special is that there is only binding object, so it cannot be captured by a closure. A re-binding of `foo´ must explicitly save and restore the value of the binding because the single binding object cannot be replaced by a new object as it is accessible everywhere the name of the special variable is known. The great value of special variables as global variables with clearly defined binding behavior instead of the usual setting behavior in inferior languages, is thus achieved by using the same syntax for all bindings to cause save and restore to become automatic when the variable is special and shadowing when the variable is "normal", but through exactly the same underlying principle of pushing and popping bindings. Now, what may seem strange, but really is very useful, the variable value of a symbol /is/ that single binding object for the special variable named by that symbol. The reason this may confuse people is pretty obvious, though: There are several ways to reference the value of the single binding of a special variable. A top-level `(setq foo bar)´ will behave like `(setf (symbol-value 'foo) bar)´ as this is indeed what the operation actually amounts to anywhere a special variable is referenced. Therefore, if you do a top-level `setq´, you exploit a feature in many Common Lisp implementations where an unknown or "free" variable is assumed to be special without being pervasively declared to be so. This can come in very handy, but it is also known to confuse people, so there should probably be a switch to signal an error in this case to help new users understand what they are doing. In any case, we have a similar issue with functional arguments, where the single function-binding of a symbol is inferred when you name the symbol in a "function context" such as passing a symbol to `funcall´. A convenience to experienced programmers can become confusing for new programmers. The ability to reference the single binding object of a special binding with `symbol-value´ should really be thought of as a low-level access mechanism that is useful when you wish to develop interpreters for your own languages. Likewise, `boundp´ answers two questions depending on how much you know when you ask. If the argument is a symbol you know names a special variable, you ask it whether the single binding it names has a value, i.e., whether an enclosing binding exists for a variable that has no global value. If the argument is a symbol you know /should/ name a special variable that would always have a value if some file was loaded, such as by `defvar´, you know that that has not yet happened. Other than this, I think programmers should stay away from `boundp´ and `makunbound´ unless they intend to communicate through the boundness of variables like one may communicate through the boundness of slots in CLOS instances. I find special variables and their binding behavior exceptionally intuitive, so I may have some problems explaining them to someone who has not yet seen what causes me to find it intuitive, but I believe that thinking of bindings as objects should be helpful in realizing the deeper nature of variables in Common Lisp. Understanding variables in C/C++ requires a very different approach, but, these languages also have binding objects, with the difference that you can actually refer directly to the binding object through pointer that has the machine address of the binding, even when it is on the stack. Of course, this can be a major drag on the efficiency of code that must sync the value of the binding with the actual storage in memory if its address has been taken, and the `register´ keyword may be used to inform the compiler that the address of the binding will never be taken. A Common Lisp program that uses closures will face similar syncronization needs for the bindings that are closed over when they may be referenced elsewhere at the same time, but will normally be able to avoid similar syncronization costs. I hope this has been helpful. -- Erik Naggum, Oslo, Norway Act from reason, and failure makes you rethink and study harder. Act from faith, and failure makes you blame someone and push harder.